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"Die Kunst" he said "hat die Tendenz, wieder die Natur zu sein. By this time, however, his study of the natural sciences and particularly of Darwin's teachings, his reading of Zola and his contact with the Berlin group of literary critics had combined to turn him to a partial use of the naturalistic method.Sie wird sie nach Massgabe ihrer jeweiligen Reproductionsbedingungen und deren Handhabung."* And not only did Holz promulgate this theory of the reproduction of an atomistic and mechanical world by the most exact scientific methods, excluding all possibility of style that implies selection and rearrangement of details, but he attempted to put the theory- into practice in the series of sketches called Papa Hamlet and a drama Die Familie Sclickc. ' "Une oeuvre d'art est un coin de la creation, vu a travers un tempera- inent." Proudbonet Courbet in Mes Haines — Causcrics Urteraires et artisti- ques. Already favorably disposed to naturalism, then, he became a ready convert to the extreme prin- ciples of Amo Holz, who, during his visit in Niederschonhausen, read to him sketches from Papa Hamlet, depicting without reserve the most repulsive features of poverty, filth, and lewdness.Obersalzbrunn, his native village, was at the time of his birth one of the favorite resorts of the Riesen- gebirge. ein solcher Stamm f angt an f risch auszuschlagen ! In the fifth scene the fact is mentioned that the North Italian spring has come. — Dieses satte, strahlende Maestoso, womit sie ihre Brandungen ausrollen lasst. " "** Lucy largely echoes this feeling in her words: "Die See! " ^'^ To both Maurer and Lucie there is a supersensual, an eter- nal meaning in it all — "Das klare Gefiihl, das sich hier ununter- brochen meldet, dass hinter dieser sichtbaren Welt eine andere verborgen ist. Fischer liegen auf dem Fang und draussen kreuzen Segel ! A single bright ray of moonlight makes its way through a window in the room. The minute description of the peasant room in the basement of a hotel in a Silesian watering place be- gins with the statement that the gloomy light of a late winter afternoon is coming in through two windows set high in the wall. In this play the naive and undemonstrative drayman gives ex- pression to his belief in the simple statement "Da oben sein sie"'*- — the w-ife and child whom he thinks he has killed.

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA THE NATURE BACKGROUND IN THE DRAMAS OF GERHART HAUPTMANN BY MARY AGNES QUIMBY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY INTERNATIONAL PRINTING PHILADELPHIA 1918 UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA THE NATURE BACKGROUND IN THE DRAMAS OF GERHART HAUPTMANN BY MARY AGNES OUIMBY A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY INTERNATIONAL PRINTING COMPANY PHILADELPHIA 1918 THE NATURE BACKGROUND IN THE DRAMAS OF GERHART HAUPTMANN. Professor Camillo von Klenze's comprehensive resume^ of the books and articles dealing with the nature-sense, supplemented by Miss Rey- nolds' bibliography and review in the introduction to her large work on "The Treatment of Nature in English Poetry between Pope and Wordsworth,"- show how the subject has continued to occupy the attention of literary critics ever since the appearance in 1794 of Schiller's Essay "t Jber die naive und sentimentale Dichtung". (3) 4 Nature Background in Dniinas of Gcrhart Haiif^tinann spread of waves and gray-white beach, salt, monotonous, senseless — such an entire absence of art, books, talk, ele- gance — so indescribably comforting, even this winter day — grim, yet so delicate looking, so spiritual — striking, emo- tional, impalpable depths, subtler than all the poems, paint- ings, music I have ever read, seen, heard. ' The following review lays no claim to originality.Toward the summit itself the underbrush is often so thick as to form almost impenetrable walls, while the peak itself is in some places a bare, rocky surface and in others a meadowland. It was on the return from this second trip that he stopped at Hohenhaus near Zitzschewig in the Lossnitz valley. The dramas of Gerliart Hauptmann have been divided for the purpose of tliis investigation into the following groups: (i ) Dramas in which at least one act has an outdoor set- ting or an indoor setting that affords a view of landscape. Nature Background in Dramas of Gerhart Hauptmann 37 Then Karl upbraids Rorico : ". sollst langsam wachsen, bliihn, Friichte zur Reife treiben, wohlgepflegt von Gartnerhanden ;"*^ and again : "Eile! denn, wiirst du gleich mit Makeln libersat so will ich eines Tags doch zu dir sagen — wenn du dich meinem reinen Willen fiigst — : geh' hin und zeige dich den Priestern ! In general, then, there is little indication in Griselda of an attempt to do more with the nature background than give the piece an aesthetic setting. In this play, as in Rose Bernd and Kaiser Karls Geisel, Hauptmann presents individuals who are directly and vitally influenced by their contact with nature. "Nun ist es, als ob etwas wie ein klingendcr Luftzug durch den finsteren Raum hauchte." And, as he comes in, we are told that "Die Musik noch immer zunehmend ebbt und flutet."'"^ At the close of the act when Pippa and Hellriegel, rapturously happy in their love for each other, plan to leave the cold, bare mountains for the warm, sunny south, the first gleam of the morning sun is seen on Hellriegel's finger as a symbol of the joys in store for them in the southlands. "'^'-* And his ecstasy grows as he contemplates the rising sun; "Ziep, Ziep! The springtime cheer is suggestive of the mood of the Henschel household, where the success of Hanna's scheme to marry Henschel becomes assured. In Act II Hauptmann fails to include in the extremely min- ute description of Michael Kramer's studio any mention of the light or of the view of beautiful poplars mentioned by the land- scape painter Lachmann during a visit with Kramer.In addition to mountain scenery Silesia presents various other types of landscape. Here at the home of Marie Thienemann he enjoyed the splendid old garden with its linden and chestnut trees. (2) Dramas with indoor settings, which, while affording no actual view of landscape, show in a definite manner the effect of outdoor conditions. und an jenem Tag sollst du vor aller Welt rein wie die keusche Himmelsblume, wie die Lilie in Mariens Handen sein."*^ To Alcuin, who is also favorably impressed by her, Karl confides : "Mein Flaccus! Griselda is a real child of nature, and her counterpart is Markgraf Ulrich, the genuine "Naturmensch" to whom all culture and refinement are dis- tasteful. oder sagen Sie lieber bloss, ich bin baden gegangen." '"* Schilling's friends, the sculptor Maurer and the violinist Lucie Heil, also evince a love for the sea that is only less pas- sionate as their need for the relief it offers is the less desperate. Then, as the curtain falls, music which had begun with the appearance of the sun con- tinues, representing the mighty spectacle.'^' This melodramatic effect (in the literal sense of the term) is an interesting departure from Hauptmann's usual treatment of nature. "'^* With Michael Hellriegel, however, it is different. das kann eine Maus, eine Goldammer oder eine Tiirangel sein ! This is a striking lapse in the naturalistic technique. The nature element in Hauptmann's dramatic art becomes more highly significant when the characteristics discovered in the individual plays are brought together and observed in their entirety and in the light of comparison with corresponding phases of other, contemporary dramas.Yet fairness compels one to admit that the groping is chiefly for form of expression. There is no evidence of consciously expressed subjectivity, but the effect as a whole reveals the interpretation of an artistic temperament. A supernatural, white light fills the room when the Angel of Death appears.*'* At this point, too, the stortn out- side begins to gain in strength.'-' As Hannele lies in death a pale light shines upon her body.'-* When Mattern, accused of cruelty toward Hannele, swears his innocence, faint blue flashes of lightning and rumbling of thunder register nature's protest to his perjury. It is after midnight, and rigorous winter weather prevails outside. '*" And he seems to ride above the mountain tops and over the seas of hyacinths, and then to sink down among marble gardens and meadows blue with flowers and into emerald valleys.Whether through "scientifically" accurate repro- duction of the world as it is, or through poetic description of a realm of the autlior's own creation, there is evident the constant subjective ideal of Ijettering the present environment. An investigation of the nature element in Hauptmann's dramas suggests preliminary consideration of the part the outdoor world has plaj'ed in his own life. The eye is taken from the homely details of the farmyard to the beautiful apple tree and then to the trees and mountains beyond. The settings of the remaining scenes are for the most part simply suggested in the most general manner. '^^ A mystic, greenish-yellow light streams from the "Himmelsschliissel" in Hannele's hand when Mattern. These details all emphasize the unsuit- ableness of this forbidding place for Pippa, the lovely embodi- ment of the Ideal of Beauty, who has come from her home in Venice to "dem verreisten Barbarenland." The second act depicts a worse scene in the interior of a soli- tary' cabin in the mountains, where smoke, age and neglect have had their full effect. Hellriegel's intense desire for the beauty of the southern lands reaches a climax when he fancies that through the death of his rival Huhn the last obstacle in the way of taking Pippa with him to the land of his dreams has been removed.

That 'von Klenze, Journal of Germanic Philology, II (1898), pp. ' Myra Reynolds, The Treatment of Nature in English Poetry (Chicago. ' The University of Chicago Press — Decennial Publications. This selection by no means implies a necessary belief in the immortality of Hauptmann's dramas. And Zola, it will be remem- bered, showed an interesting inability to keep his own personality out of his professedly naturalistic novels, so that while advocating in theory that the material for a novel should be collected and presented in exactly the same way as that of a botanist or a ' zoologist, he was nevertheless constantly pronouncing moral judg-. 6 Nature Background in Dramas of Gerhart Hauptniann expression.

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