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As an outgrowth of their more traditional roles, actuaries also work in the fields of risk management and enterprise risk management for both financial and non-financial corporations (D'Arcy 2005).
Actuaries in traditional roles study and use the tools and data previously in the domain of finance (Feldblum 2001, p. The Basel II accord for financial institutions (2004), and its analogue, the Solvency II accord for insurance companies (to come into effect in 2016), require institutions to account for operational risk separately, and in addition to, credit, reserve, asset, and insolvency risk.
The amount of time that occurs before the loss event is important, as the insurer will not have to pay anything until after the event has occurred.
For this reason, actuaries are essential to the insurance and reinsurance industries, either as staff employees or as consultants; to other businesses, including sponsors of pension plans; and to government agencies such as the Government Actuary's Department in the United Kingdom or the Social Security Administration in the United States of America.
Actuaries also design and maintain products and systems.
They are involved in financial reporting of companies' assets and liabilities.
In addition to these risks, social insurance programs are influenced by public opinion, politics, budget constraints, changing demographics, and other factors such as medical technology, inflation, and cost of living considerations (GAO 1980, GAO 2008).
Non-life actuaries, also known as property and casualty or general insurance actuaries, deal with both physical and legal risks that affect people or their property.
Since neither of these kinds of analysis are purely deterministic processes, stochastic models are often used to determine frequency and severity distributions and the parameters of these distributions.