Consequences of invalidating environments
Global ratings of impairment are higher for the children from mothers with BPD.
Even when adjusted for contributing factors such as childhood trauma, data found by Hobson and colleagues (2005) shows that maternal BPD continued to be a compelling factor correlating to poor outcomes in offspring.
Compared with children from healthy control mothers, school aged-adolescent children of mothers with BPD are at an increased risk of disruptive behavioral disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
These particular children are 6.8 times more likely than controls from healthy mothers to have depressive symptoms (Ghassabian, Herba, Roza, Govaert, Schenk, Jaddoe, & Tiemeier, 2012).
Children with a shameful and incongruent sense of self are more likely to engage in self injurious behavior and have dissociative symptoms, both of which are correlates of BPD (Hobson et al., 2005).
Similarly, childhood internalizing and externalizing disorders have been shown to occur in patients with early deficits in their ability to self regulate (Eisenberg et al., 2001; Ogawa et al., 1997; Stepp et al., 2012; Suveg, Hoffman, Zeman, & Thomassin, 2009; Yates, 2004).
Rather, such a mother would model ineffective ways of coping and managing stressful emotions, possibly even leading to neglect and abuse (Bandelow et al., 2005; Bornovalova, et al., 2006).
Furthermore, these mothers with BPD tend to model the very strategies their own parents used, thereby replicating the same invalidating environments for their children (Stepp et al., 2012).It may be that the mother invalidates the child due to her own inaccurate perception of her child's emotional state.A BPD-afflicted mother who struggles to properly understand and manage her own feelings and emotions, and who herself has a history of parental invalidation from her early childhood, may lack the tools to model strategies for emotional socialization (Bandelow et al., 2005; Bornovalova, et al., 2006).Hobson and colleagues (2009), researching the particular challenges of parents with BPD, find a dysfunctional display in the inter-relatedness of these patients with psychotherapists.The moment-to-moment interactions between patient and therapist may be compared to patients with dysthymia, due to intense and often heated exchanges coupled with idealizing and devaluing "flip-flopping" (Conroy et al., 2009).
Moreover, among this group are higher reported incidences of (Stepp et al., 2012) (1) cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability, (2) negative attributional style, (3) dysfunctional attitudinal behavior, (4) ruminative responsive style, (5) self-critical attitude, (6) insecure style of attachment, and (7) increased reassurance seeking behavior.